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Tustunnuggee Hopoi ( - 1828 )  Category ( Historical_Figures ) [suggest a correction]

Tustunnuggee Hopoi, known as Little Prince, was a powerful Creek leader in their national council in the early nineteenth century. He fought to preserve the Creek political independence and played a significant role in the outbreak of the creek War of 1813-1814.

In 1812, Creek headman Little Warrior led a war party on the Duck River in Tennessee, one of many such attacks during the Red Stick spiritual revolt against Anglo-American influence. White settlers were killed in this attack and, at the insistence of Benjamin Hawkins, a U.S. Creek agent, the Creek National Council ordered the execution of Little Warrior and his war party. This action against Little Warrior by the Creeks precipitated retaliatory attacks by the Red Sticks that provoked a Creek civil war between Upper and Lower Creeks.

Little Prince, Big Warrior and William McIntosh (known as Tustunnuggee Hutkee or "White Warrior") organized southeastern native support for the war against the Red Sticks, and these forces combined with Andrew Jackson's army to defeat the nativist Creeks at Horseshoe Bend.

McIntosh was the son of Captain William McIntosh, a member of a prominent Savannah, Georgia family sent into the Creek Nation to recruit them to fight for the British during the Revolutionary War. His mother, a Creek named Senoya, was a member of the Wind Clan. Raised as a Creek, McIntosh never knew his Tory father. The fact that McIntosh's father was white was of little matter to the Creeks. He worked with Hawkins and Little Prince to by leading General Andrew Jackson's Creek volunteer troops during the Creek Indian War of 1813 - 1814, during which the Upper Creeks were defeated. For his services at the Battle of Horseshoe Bend and elsewhere, he was commissioned a Brigadier General in the United States Army.

Despite the fact the Upper Creeks, McIntosh included, had vowed to kill anyone who signed away any more Indian land, McIntosh, along with eight other chiefs, on February 12, 1825 signed the Treaty of Indian Springs. This treaty relinquished all Creek land located in Georgia in exchange for $400,000.. The fifth article of the treaty stipulated: "That the treaty commissioners pay the first $200,000 directly to the McIntosh party."

Whether McIntosh signed the treaty for personal gain or because he believed signing it was in the best interests of the Creek Nation still is debated, but after the war, Little Prince ordered McIntosh's execution. This order was brought on by increasing pressures brought by Georgia and the U.S. to force the Creeks to move west. Despite this opposition to the cession of Creek lands, Little Prince soon after approved the Treaties of Washington and Fort Mitchell, agreements that provided for the sale of remaining Creek territory in Georgia.

McIntosh then built a plantation called Lockchau Talofau (Acorn Bluff) on the Chattahoochee River in Carroll County that was worked by 72 slaves. On April 30, 1825, the Law Menders, led by the Red Stick leader Menawa, set McIntosh's house on fire. When McIntosh escaped, as many as 400 warriors opened fire, killing McIntosh and Etommee Tustunnuggee, another Creek chief who signed the 1825 treaty. That accord was rejected as fraudulent by the Creeks and U.S. government and replaced by the 1826 Treaty of Washington, allowing the Creeks to keep about 3 million acres in Alabama.

Throughout these struggles and despite his alliance with McIntosh and Hawkins, Little Prince's influence decreased in the decade before his death in 1828. Although the Georgia concession was seen as successful on many fronts, this small portion of land was seen as a betrayal by alliances between the Creek National Council and McIntosh and Hawkins.

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